The main difference between bryophytes and pteridophytes is that the plant body of bryophytes is not differentiated into root, stem, and leaves whereas the plant body of pteridophytes is differentiated into root, stem, and leaves. The printed version, however, was effectively published on 6. Pdf on nov 1, 2016, harald schneider and others published systematics and evolution of lycophytes and ferns. The lycophytes and monilophytes are not as closely related as once thought, but they both share a common trait in that they reproduce by spores and thus form a distinctive component of the vascular flora of the delmarva peninsula.
Pteridophyta living in water are known as hydrophyte, sticking in other plants are called epiphyte and living in residue or waste of other plants are known as saprophyte. Haeckel 1866 called these groups of plants as pteridophytes because of their pinnate or feather like fronds leaves. Pdf systematics and evolution of lycophytes and ferns. Systematics and evolution of lycophytes and ferns schneider.
Pteridophyta characteristics, life cycle, classification. The lycophytes, monilophytes, and gymnosperms of the delmarva. However, the pteridophytes differ from mosses and seed plants in that both generations are independent and freeliving. General characteristics of pteridophytes key points easy. The body of the sporophyte is well differentiated into roots, stem and leaves. As with the ferns, lycophytes produce spores for reproduction and are both windpollinated and dispersed. Choose from 109 different sets of bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperm flashcards on quizlet. Some pteridophytes are aquatic and some are epiphytes. Pteridophytes general characteristics general characters of pteridophytes the vascular cryptogams pteridophytes are plants with feather like leaves.
You may recall that in bryophytes the dominant phase in the life cycle is the gametophytic plant body. A linear sequence of extant families and genera of lycophytes and. The best manual to identify lycopods and ferns is ferns of northeastern and central north america 2nd ed. The fern and lycophyte flora of japan comprising 721 native taxa. Firstly all the botanists divided the plant kingdom into two large groups cryptogamia and phanerogamia, linnaeus 1754 used the term cryptogams for the first time for those plants which did not possess visible sex organs.
Similar to the life cycle of seed plants, the pteridophytes also involves the alternation of generations in its life cycle. Mar 08, 2016 the pteridophytes are found in cool, damp, shady places though some may flourish well in sandysoil conditions. Lycopodiopsida, or lycophytes have at least four genera and more than 1,200 species. Herbarium specimens from the university and jepson herbaria at the university of california at berkeley were used when field pictures were not available. Lycophytes and ferns are distinct evolutionary lineages, with ferns strongly supported as sister to seed plants and lycophytes, in turn, sister to this. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Difference between bryophytes and pteridophytes bryophytes. In this article we will discuss about the classification of pteridophytes. The taxonomic treatment of extant ferns monilophytes and lycophytes and the varying opinions throughout the history of fern classification are. Lycophytes belong to microphyllous lineage of pteridohytes.
In lycophytes the sporophyte grows out of the gametophyte, the two are attached, however, with pteridophytes the gametophyte is a completely different plant. Bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms plant organization the amazing plant race phylum porifera phylum cnidaria phylum platyhelminthes phylum nematoda phylum annelida phylum mollusca phylum arthropoda phylum echinodermata phylum chordata conclusion. Both bryophytes and pteridophytes exhibit alteration of generations. Difference between bryophytes and pteridophytes major.
Lycophytes comprise the most phylogenetically distant clade of vascular plants. The fern gametophyte is only small, a few millimetres across, often growing under the ground and with primitive rhizoids instead of roots. Most pteridophytes are terrestrial and grow in moist and shady places while some flourish well in open, dry places especially in xeric conditions. Lycophytes were some of the dominating plant species of the carboniferous period, and included treelike species, although extant living lycophytes are relatively small plants. Besides having various medicinal properties, the pteridophytes are also employed for a variety of commercial and environmental purposes. Unlike the seedplants, lycophytes and pteridophytes are free. Occurrence of the primary cell wall polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan ii in pteridophytes, lycophytes, and bryophytes. Most pteridophytes are terrestrial and grows in moist and shady places while some flourish well in open dry places. Lycophyte, division lycopodiophyta or lycophyta, any sporebearing vascular plant that is one of the club mosses and their allies, living and fossil. Lycophytes, also known as the fern allies, are a clade of vascular plants similar to ferns but have unique leaves called microphylls. Like reptiles first true land animals that evolved after. Occurrence of the primary cell wall polysaccharide. Useful notes on the classification of pteridophytes.
Dec 14, 2016 an official journal of botanical society of china, sponsored by institute of botany, chinese academy of sciences. Lycophytes comprise the most phylogenetically distant clade of vascular plants and are characterized by microphyllous leaves. In the humid interior they carpet forest floors, and climb and perch on tree trunks and branches. An inventory survey was conducted in order to assess the traditional uses of pteridophytes by the local inhabitants of the study area. An update and reassessment of fern and lycophyte diversity data in. Pteridophytes constitute a significant and important group in the plant kingdom. Biology and evolution of ferns and lycophytes annals of. Tall, graceful tree ferns line the sides of streams and dominate in damp gullies. Over the past century, the diversity of ferns and lycophytes in japan was quite. In 1880, the cryptogams of the plant kingdom were divided. Pteridophytes are a group of plant species that have grown on this earth for over millions of years. After more than 170 years of publication on the subject, the literature on biogeography of ferns and lycophytes is now overwhelming, so in chapter 14, diversity, biogeography and floristics, r. A pteridophyte is a vascular plant with xylem and phloem that disperses spores.
Jun 06, 20 pdf version does not have an isbn or issn and is not therefore effectively published melbourne code, art. Pteridophytes pteridophytes is a general term for the vascular, free. What are bryophytes definition, structure, classification, characteristics 2. Engler 1909 included the bryophyta and pteridophyta under embryophyta. Pteridophytes, also known as vascular cryptogams and ferns and fern allies, comprise about 12 000 species of vascular plants that do not produce. The printed version, however, was effectively published on 6 june 20. Because pteridophytes produce neither flowers nor seeds, they are sometimes referred to as cryptogams, meaning that their means of reproduction is hidden. Alternation of generations in plants neet 2018 duration. They are primitive plants and lack seeds, wood, fruit and flowers.
They are both ancient groups of plants that reproduce with spores. The sexuality of pteridophytic gametophytes can be classified as follows. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Aug 04, 2018 pteridophytes part2 for neet aiims jipmer duration. Implications for the evolution of vascular plants1 toshiro matsunaga, tadashi ishii, sadamu matsumoto, masanobu higuchi, alan darvill, peter albersheim, and malcolm a. Some other uses are ferns provide natural vegetation thats important to both wildlife and birds. This list represents all pteridophyte species known to grow on moorea. Ferns and lycophytes are two groups of vascular plants without wood, seeds or flowers. Eichler 1883 divided the plant kingdom into cryptogamia and phanerogamia. Presentday lycophytes are grouped in 6 genera some botanists divide them into 15 or more. Various animals use the fronds as food while birds and small creatures use the plants for cover. Ferns, horsetails often treated as ferns, and lycophytes clubmosses. Difference between bryophytes and pteridophytes definition. The major groups include lycophytes clubmosses, quillworts, and spikemosses, which has a long and fascinating fossil history, with some examples of ancient clubmosses growing up to 40 meters tall.
They are the first evolved plant group with vascular tissue system for the conduction of water and food materials. Moran has limited himself to three interrelated topics. Pteridophyta is a division of plants that consist of a vascular system composed of xylem and phloem. Therefore, the following results usually combine data for both the lycophytes and monilophytes, with some exceptions. Pteridophytes are a group of primitive land plants belongs to the cryptogams. A communityderived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns.
The term bryophyta is used as a collective name to represent a group of plants that includes the mosses musci, hornworts and liverworts hepaticae growing predominantly in amphibious environment. This assessment will assess how well you understand the life. Pteridophyta do not produce seeds but they produce spores. The effort to sample all recorded families and genera in a phylogenetic framework enabled the phylogenetic relationships of all chinese pteridophytes to be addressed for the. Pteridophytes general characteristics free online biology. This week we will cover the lycophytes and the eusporangiate ferns the basal. Pdf pteridophytes lycophytes and ferns researchgate. Pteridophytes of andaman and nicobar islands dixit 2001 bangladesh.
Abstract in portuguese is available in the online version of this article. Aug 28, 2016 therefore, pteridophytes are no longer considered to form a valid taxon, but the term is still used as an informal way to refer to ferns monilophytes and lycophytes, and some recent authors have. Learn bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperm with free interactive flashcards. Pteridophytes ferns and lycophytes are freesporing vascular plants that have a life cycle with alternating, freeliving gametophyte and sporophyte phases that are independent at maturity. The cryptogamia was further divided into thallophyta. Bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms pages. The gametophyte is dominant in bryophytes whereas the sporophyte is dominant in pteridophytes. Ppg i a community derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns. Bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperm flashcards.
Embracing the pteridophyte classification of renchang ching. This means that their leaves originated from the emergences of the stem surface, and therefore are more similar to moss leaves than any other leaves of pteridophytes and seed pla. And among the first of the plants to truly live on land were the pteridophytes. Some of the characters of pteridophytes are as follows. Pdf pdf version does not have an isbn or issn and is not therefore effectively published melbourne code, art. May 26, 2017 the main difference between bryophytes and pteridophytes is that the plant body of bryophytes is not differentiated into root, stem, and leaves whereas the plant body of pteridophytes is differentiated into root, stem, and leaves.
It is speculated that life began in the oceans, and through millions of years of evolution, life slowly adapted on to dry land. Most pictures are of living specimens taken in the field. Pdf version does not have an isbn or issn and is not therefore effectively published melbourne code, art. Classification of pteridophytes short classification of the ferns pdf. Huperzia, lycopodiella, and lycopodium, the club mosses or ground pines. Encyclopedia of flora and fauna of bangladesh, vol. Ferns and lycophytes abound in new zealands rainforests.160 783 196 493 153 581 175 734 1131 1247 1154 167 153 984 119 779 738 684 526 1029 1062 499 231 77 1492 815 829 1273 1371 1079 193 934 856 796